Out of Africa and into the Classroom: A teacher's dream site on Africa!

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Teacher Resources


 Ancient African Kings and Queens Posters   

     The following Ancient African Kings and Queens posters everyone below is referring to are now a hot, out-of-circulation set of INCREDIBLE posters published by Anheuser Busch back in the 60s.  I have a set in my collection, but have never seen another one.  They occasionally may be purchased on eBay in portions, but I have yet to see the whole set.  Below is an introduction of this  series.  Although I was unable to transfer photos of the kings and queens listed, the names are featured, without text on the first site below. If you go to http://www.playahata.com/pages/bhfigures/bhfigures26.html you can find the pictures alone.

     Further below, I was able to capture the kings and queens with the original text in a conversation on another site. (http://www.egyptsearch.com/forums/ultimatebb.cgi?ubb=get_topic;f=15;t=001910 , saved as a png file.)  Read between the lines and you will have THE BEST teaching tool for Africa that you could ever have!




Figures in Black History


Courtesy of Morpheus




Gallery of African Kings & Queens Gallery I

These artistic depictions are courtesy of Anheuser-Busch Inc. who 25 years ago set about creating a Great Kings and Queens of Africa Cultural Arts Series. It should be noted that these are just a minority of the many kings and queens of various kingdoms, states and groups that ruled throughout Africa's long ancient to medieval to relatively modern history. They are comprised of benevolent monarchs, anti-colonialists, anti-slavers and yet at once also include warriors, slave-traders, controversial figures and more. The point is, despite their royal titles, they are humans with all the strengths and weaknesses therein. Yet their places in history (good, bad or otherwise) are a testament to African culture and achievement.

Artists Include: Biggers, Thomas Blackshear II, Higgins Bond, Alexander Bostic, Dorothy Carter, S. Clay, Paul Collins, Floyd Cooper, L.D. Dillon, Debra Edgerton, Ezra, H.M. Rahsaan Fort II, Roy E. La Grone, Leonard Jenkins, Jonathan Knight, Charles Lilly, Ann Marshall, Dow Miller, Dean Mitchell, Carl Owens, Jerry Pinkney, Alfred J. Smith, Lydia Thompson, and A. Wade.

For information to go along with these figures see the main website: http://www.abcorpaffairs.com/gallery/

[For any dissenters, the information provided is still good despite whatever conflicts of interest one has with the sponsor. And furthermore, rest assured that Africans had been drinking beer thousands of years before Anheuser-Busch came into existence. Cheers.]

Hatshepsut - The Ablest Queen of Far Antiquity 15th Century BC


Thutmose III - Pharaoh of Egypt 14th Century BC
Tiye - Queen of Egypt 14th Century BC Century BC


Akhenaton - Pharaoh of Egypt 14th Century BC


Nefertari - Queen of Egypt 13th Century BC


Makeda - Queen of Sheba 10th Century BC


Taharqa - Pharaoh of Nubia 7th Century BC


Hannibal - Ruler of Carthage 2nd Century BC


Cleopatra VII - Queen of Egypt 1st Century BC


Tenkamenin - King of Ghana 11th Century AD


Mansa Kankan Musa - King of Mali 14th Century AD
Askia Muhammad Toure - King of Songhai 15th Century AD


Sunni Ali Ber - King of Songhai 15th Century AD


Idris Alooma - Sultan of Bornu 16th Century AD


Queen Amina of Zaria 16th Century AD


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Author Topic: Anheuser Busch Great Kings and Queens of Africa
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Icon 6 posted 23 September, 2009 10:06 AM Profile for Brada-Anansi Author's Homepage Send New Private Message Edit/Delete Post Reply With Quote
From back before I had Dread Locs..I used to get ma hair done at Kemet Hair solon in Blkyn-NY.

These were always a feature on the walls.

 - [IMG]

Teaching a doctrine of love and peace, Akhenaton was the first ruler in recorded history to believe in the concept of the One God.
In order to diminish the influences of idol worshippers, he moved into the desert early in his reign and built a new city dedicated to religion, art and music. This new city, Akhenaton (now Tell el Amarna) with its lush gardens and magnificent buildings became known as the City of Dreams.

He and his wife, Queen Nefertiti, one of history? most renowned beauties, changed Egyptian culture so radically that their influence was felt centuries later. At their urging, the royal sculptors and painters began to recreate life in its natural state instead of the stiff, stylized form of early Egyptian art. Thus, he is the first Pharaoh of whom a true likeness is recorded. Also, the written language was expanded from the limited tool of official record keeping to a fuller, warmer language for use in poetry, songs and story telling.


Proclaimed to be a descendant of the legendary Queen of Sheba and King Solomon, Menelek was the overshadowing figure of his time in Africa. He converted a group of independent kingdoms into the strong, stable empire known as the United States of Abyssinia (Ethiopia).
His feat of pulling together several kingdoms which often fiercely opposed each other earned him a place as one of the great statesmen of African history. His further accomplishments in dealing on the international scene with the world powers, coupled with his stunning victory over Italy in the 1896 Battle of Adwa, an attempt to invade his country, placed him among the great leaders of world history and maintained his country independence until 1935.

His profound pride of independence helped stabilize his people and made his country one of only two nations in Africa (the other is Liberia) to successfully resist colonization by the European powers.

So peace loving was Khama, that on several occasions he surrendered control of his kingdom to his father, Sekhomi, who despised Khama? conversion to Christianity. The Bamangwato tribe displayed strong affection and support for Khama, however. Once, when Khama departed for a self-imposed exile, most of the tribe gathered their belongings to follow.
Khama distinguished his reign with the desire and ability to extract technological innovations from Europeans while resisting their attempts to colonize his country.

Bechuanaland advancements under Khama included the building of schools, scientific cattle breeding, and the introduction of a mounted police corps which practically eliminated all forms of crime.

Respect for Khama was exemplified during a visit with Queen Victoria of England to protest English settlement in Bechuanaland in 1875. The English honored Khama and confirmed his appeal for continued freedom for Bechuanaland.

For half a century the Basotho people were ruled by the founder of their nation, a wise and just king who was as brilliant in diplomacy as he was in battle.
To create Basutoland, Moshoeshoe united many diverse groups, uprooted by war, into a stable society where law and order prevailed and the people could raise their crops and cattle in peace. He knew that peace made prosperity possible, and he often avoided conflict through skillful negotiations.

Even so, the Basotho had to fight for their survival. First came plundering Africans, later European colonialists - the British and particularly the Boers, who took more and more land from the Basothos.

Moshoeshoe solidified Basotho defenses at Thaba Bosiu, their impregnable mountain capital. From this stronghold he engineered a number of major victories over superior forces.

But eventually the relentless Boers were about to annihilate the Basothos and take their remaining land. Moshoeshoe persuaded the British to intervene and make Basutoland a protectorate in 1868. It was yet another of his diplomatic coups, one that not only helped assure his nation of its survival but also helped assure Moshoeshoe of a permanent place in African history.

A flamboyant leader and world figure, Mansa Mussa distinguished himself as a man who did everything on a grand scale. An accomplished businessman, he managed vast resources to benefit his entire kingdom. He was also a scholar and imported noteworthy artists to heighten the cultural awareness of his people.
In 1324, he led his people on the Hadj, a holy pilgrimage from Timbuktu to Mecca. His caravan consisted of 72,000 people whom he led safely across the Sahara Desert and back, a total distance of 6,496 miles. So spectacular was this event, that Mansa Mussa gained the respect of scholars and traders throughout Europe and won international prestige for Mali as one of the world largest and wealthiest empires.

Osei Tutu was the founder and first king of the Asante nation, a great West African forest kingdom in what is now Ghana. He was able to convince a half dozen suspicious chiefs to join their states under his leadership.
According to legend, this occurred when the Golden Stool descended from heaven and came to rest on Osei Tutu? knees, signifying his choice by the gods. The Golden Stool became a sacred symbol of the nation? soul, which was especially appropriate since gold was the prime source of Asante wealth.

Under Osei Tutu, the loose knit coalition was unified not only by this common throne but also by a common capital city (Kumase), a common festival celebrating the yam harvest and a common enemy - the Denkyeras, powerful rivals and an ever-present threat to Asante survival. By defeating them in a four-year campaign, the Asantes gained access to the rich coastal trade.

During Osei Tutu reign, the geographic area of Asante tripled in size. The kingdom became a significant, power that with his military and political prowess as an example, would endure for two centuries.

Regarded as one of the greatest generals of all time, Hannibal and his overpowering African armies conquered major portions of Spain and Italy and came close to defeating the mighty Roman Empire. Born in the North African country of Carthage, Hannibal became general of the army at age twenty-five. His audacious moves - such as marching his army with African war elephants through the treacherous Alps to surprise and conquer Northern Italy - and his tactical genius as illustrated by the Battle of Cannae, where his seemingly trapped army cleverly surrounded and destroyed a much larger Roman force, won him recognition which has spanned more than 2,000 years. His tactics have been studied and successfully imitated by Generals as recently as World War II.
The genius of Hannibal extended beyond the battlefield, however. After the Punic Wars, his leadership and administrative abilities brought Carthage great prosperity and prestige

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Icon 1 posted 23 September, 2009 11:33 AM Profile for Chopper City Send New Private Message Edit/Delete Post Reply With Quote
^^ Looks more like Ethiopian girls dancing around a bunch of excited South African guys to me! [Big Grin]
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Icon 1 posted 23 September, 2009 11:42 AM Profile for Finesse Send New Private Message Edit/Delete Post Reply With Quote
your not really egyptian are you? My uncle used to tell me about people who would claim egyptian ancestry for there own purposes. its not your obsession with black people. you just seem somehwat strange...

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Yaa Asantewa of the Ashanti Empire
Her fight against British colonialists is a story that is woven throughout the history of Ghana.
One evening the chiefs held a secret meeting at Kumasi. Yaa Asantewa, the Queen Mother of Ejisu, was at the meeting. The chiefs were discussing how they should make war on the white men and force them to bring back the Asantehene. Yaa Asantewa noticed that some of the chiefs were afraid. Some said that there should be no war. They should rather go to beg the Governor to bring back the Asantehene King Prempeh. Then suddenly Yaa Asantewa stood up and spoke. This was what she said: "Now I have seen that some of you fear to go forward to fight for our king. If it were in the brave days of, the days of Osei Tutu, Okomfo Anokye, and Opolu Ware, chiefs would not sit down to see thief king taken away without firing a shot. No white man could have dared to speak to chief of the Ashanti in the way the Governor spoke to you chiefs this morning. Is it true that the bravery of the Ashanti is no more? I cannot believe it. It cannot be! I must say this, if you the men of Ashanti will not go forward, then we will. We the women will. I shall call upon my fellow women. We will fight the white men. We will fight till the last of us falls in the battlefields." This speech stirred up the men who took an oath to fight the white men until they released the Asantehene. For months the Ashantis led by Yaa Asantewa fought very bravely and kept the white men in the fort. Yet British reinforcements totaling 1,400 soldiers arrived at Kumasi. Yaa Asantewa and other leaders were captured and sent into exile. Yaa Asantewa's war was the last of the major war in Africa led by a

Queen Nzinga

In the sixteenth century, the Portugese position in the slave trade was threatened by England and France. As a result, the Portugese shifted their slave-trading activities to the Congo and South West Africa. Mistaking the title of the ruler (ngola) for the name of the country, the Portugese called the land of the Mbundu people Angola—the name by which it is still known today.

Here, the Portugese encountered the brilliant and courageous Queen Nzinga, who was determined never to accept the Portugese conquest of her country. An exceptional stateswoman and military strategist, she harassed the Portugese until her death, at age eighty.

Her meeting with the Portugese governor, recorded by a Dutch artist, is legendary in the history of Africa's confrontations with Europe: Representing her brother, the ngola, Nzinga arrived at Luanda in royal splendor. Upon entering the room, Nzinga observed that the only seat in the room belonged to the governor. She promptly summoned one of her women, who fell on her hands and knees and became Nzinga's "seat". Outwitted from the start, the governor never gained the advantage at the meeting, which resulted in a treaty on equal terms.

Converting to Christianity for reasons more political than religious (primarily to forge links with the governor) she adopted the name Dona Anna de Souza. However, the governor could not honor the treaty as Portugal's rapacious appetite for black slaves had to be satisfied. She appealed to her brother to repel the Portugese, but he proved to be a weakling and Nzinga decided to take matters into her own hands.

Subsequently, Nzinga formed an alliance with the Jaga. She fashioned an organized army out of disparate elements, strengthened the alliance by marrying the Jaga chief, and ultimately created a land for her people by conquering the kingdom of Matamba. The fragile alliance with the Jaga chief ended when he betrayed her and attacked Matamba. Fortunately, dissension among the Europeans—the Dutch were encroaching on Portugal's share of the slave trade—created an opportunity for Nzinga. She established a strategic alliance with the Dutch, pitting them against the Portugese. After the Portugese routed the Dutch, Nzinga retreated to the hills of Matamba, where she established a formidable resistance movement against the Portugese regime.

She became renowned for the guerilla tactics she employed for resisting the technologically superior Portugese army. She was a brilliant strategist and, although past sixty, led her warriors herself.

Never surrendering, she died on December 17, 1663.

Her death accelerated the Portugese occupation of the interior of South West Africa, fueled by the massive expansion of the Portugese slave trade.

QUEEN OF ZULULAND (Symbol of a woman of high esteem)
Mother of the great leader Shaka Zulu. Nandi is the evalasting symbol of hard work patience and determination. She withstood and overcame many obsticles to raise to a position of power in all Zululand.

The year was 1786. The King of Zululand was overjoyed. His wife, Nandi, had given birth to a son, his first son, whom they named Shaka. But the King's other wives, jealous and bitter, pressured him to banish Nandi and the young boy into exile. steadfast and proud, she raised her son with the kind of training and guidance a royal heir should have. For her many sacrifices, Nandi was finally rewarded when her son, Shaka, later returned to become the greatest of all Zulu Kings.

To this day, the Zulu people use her name, "Nandi," to refer to a woman of high esteem.
The estimated year of Shaka's birth was 1785. He was born to Nandi, daughter of a previous chief of the eLangeni tribe. His father, Senzangakona was the chief of the then small Zulu tribe. The marriage of his parents, after his conception, did not last, and although Nandi returned to her tribe, she was made to feel unwelcome. She returned to the Zulus, who tolerated her, but was nevertheless not treated well. Shaka was teased and ridiculed and made to feel like an outsider.

He understandably grew up to be bitter and angry, hating his tormentors and listening carefully to his mother's tales about his royal blood on both sides. He was a young man in his early twenties when he became a warrior for the Mtetwa tribe, fighting for his people and for six years he proved to be an outstanding soldier. He firmly believed in being the conqueror, never the conquered and would hate it when another, weaker tribe surrendered before war could take place. He created a dangerous weapon called the iKlwa.

Dingiswayo, the chief of the Mtetwas saw Shaka's potential and decided to train him as a future chief of the Zulus, a tribe that the Mtetwas had conquered during Shaka's first battle. Dingiswayo reasoned that Shaka and the Zulus would act as a buffer against invading forces. Shaka rose through the ranks of the Mtetwa army and soon became the leader. He carefully and meticulously planned and formatted brilliant battle strategies and altered, where needed, the weapons used during battle. When the Zulu chief, Senzangakona died, Shaka became the new chief.

The era of Shaka, Zulu king had started. Shaka started to build up a mighty army of Zulu warriors. He demanded total loyalty and obedience. Death was the reward for those who hesitated in carrying out his commands. He drilled his warriors, fine-tuning them into a slick warring machine. He devised new, unheard of till then, battle tactics. He built up divisions within his army - certain divisions concentrated on making weapons. He was one of the warriors, living as they did without the trappings that he was entitled to as a chief. Shaka, king of the Zulus and his warriors, called "impis" were invincible. He believed in total annihilation and only spared those tribes and people who had shown kindness to Nandi, his mother and the young Shaka.

He never married but had over 1200 concubines. In 1817 Shaka and Dingiswayo decided to move in the Southeast of Africa. Dingiswayo died and the different tribes warred against each other to dominate the Mtetwa Empire. Shaka Zulu won the battles and was king of all the territories in Natal and Southeast Africa in 1820.

The white man arrived in Natal in 1824 and immediately sought out Shaka who held them in high regard - they had treated him medically after an enemy had stabbed him. To show his gratitude he signed over land for next to nothing - the Europeans had tricked him, although he was unaware of it. They helped him conquer other parts of South Africa.

It was during a hunt with the white man that he received a message that Nandi, his mother, was dying. Shaka was demented with grief and ordered a few thousand people executed in memory of his mother. Somehow 7000 people were slaughtered. He furthermore, demanded that his tribe go on a fast to commemorate Nandi and only after three months, when many were near to death, did he lift the fast.

Madness seemed to take hold of Shaka and his impis started to lose ground. On 22 September 1828 Shaka, king of the Zulus was murdered by two half brothers on his father side. The one half brother was Dingaan who immediately claimed kingship.

Shaka the Zulu king had a mystic about him that still lives on today. His brilliant battle tactics were revolutionary for those days and his thirst for revenge frightening. He is one of the most famous South Africans ever to have lived.

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Sunni Ali Ber
(d. 1492)

In the sixteenth century the Songhay land awoke. A marvelous growth of civilization mounted there in the heart of the Black Continent. And this civilization was not imposed by circumstances, nor by an invader, as is often the case even in our day. It was desired, called forth, introduced and propagated by a man of the Negro race.

—Félix Dubois, Tombouctou, la mystérieuse

Gao was established by the Songhai people at about the same time as the Soninke established Ghana. Gao never flourished as Ghana did and, after the fall of Ghana, Gao became a vassal state of Mali. In 1335, Gao became independent of Mali.

It was not until Sunni Ali Ber, a member of the Sunni dynasty, ascended to the throne in 1464, that the rulers of Gao looked beyond the confines of the Niger valley. In 28 years he turned the kingdom of Gao into the Songhai empire, which stretched from the Niger in the east to Jenne in the west and from Timbuktu in the north to Hombori, the wide arch formed by the Northern Niger bend, in the south. Songhai ultimately developed into the greatest of the Sudanic empires and, like Mali and Ghana, was strategically located along trans-Saharan trade routes.

Sunni Ali Ber's reign was one military campaign after another, extending the frontiers of his kingdom through conquest. Sunni Ali Ber built a well-organized army, which consisted of infantry, cavalry and a powerful navy—a fleet of ships manned by Sorko fishermen—which patrolled the Niger. Sunni Ali Ber cut a wide swath across the Western Sudan and punished his enemies mercilessly.

In 1468, supposedly invited by the people of Timbuktu, Sunni Ali Ber embarked on his military career by invading Timbuktu to oust the Tuaregs, who had wrested control from Mali in 1434. Timbuktu fell easily as Akil, the Tuareg chief, fled to Walata. Sunni Ali Ber looted and burned the city and is said to have murdered most of the priests and scholars there. Sunni Ali Ber then headed south and, in 1473, captured Jenne after a siege reputed to have lasted seven years, seven months and seven days. By contrast, Sunni Ali Ber was merciful at Jenne.

Sunni Ali Ber regarded the Mossi as a serious threat to his burgeoning power. In 1480, he encountered them after they had sacked Walata. He hounded them throughout the Western Sudan and succeeded in driving them back to their home. Next, he defeated the Fulani of Massina. Sunni Ali Ber had an intense hatred for them as he did all foreigners. In 1483, he went to war with the Mossi, repulsing them again and finally ending the Mossi threat in 1486.

In 1492, Sunni Ali drowned while returning home after a victory against the Fulani of Gurma.

In the same year Christopher Columbus, harbinger of the Atlantic slave trade, set sail for the New World.

During his reign, Sunni Ali Ber showed little respect for the Muslim religion. He kept up the outward appearance of a Muslim, primarily for political purposes, as parts of his kingdom practiced the faith. He neither relinquished the traditional Songhai religion, or did he recognize Islam as the state religion.

Although it is purported that he ruled from horseback, Sunni Ali Ber did establish an effective system of government. He turned the conquered states into provinces, with a combination of his choices and extant rulers as governors. Consequently, Songhai became a centralized state dominating the entire Niger region. Special organizational arrangements were made for Timbuktu and other Muslim provinces. Additionally, he installed a commander-in-chief for his navy.

Arab historians have been harsh in their assessment of Sunni Ali, as expected from his anti-Muslim stance, and have depicted him as a tyrant and despot. Nevertheless, he positioned Songhai as Sundiata did for Mali and laid the foundation for Askia Mohammed to take Songhai to its greatest

The country of Ghana reach the height of its greatness during the reign of Tenkamenin. Through his careful management of the gold trade across the Sahara desert into West Africa, Tenkamenin's empire flourished economically. But his greatest strength was in government. Each day he would ride out on horseback and listen to the problems and concerns of his people. He insisted that no one be denied an audience and that they be allowed to remain in his presence until satisfied that justice had been done. His principles of democratic monarchy and religious tolerance make Tenkamenin's reign one of the great models of African rule.

Behanzin was the most powerful ruler in West Africa during the end of the nineteenth century. He strongly resisted European intervention into his country. This was done with a physically fit army which included a division of five thousands female warriors. He is often referred to as the King Shark, a Dahomeyan surname which symbolized strength and wisdom. He was also fond of humanities and is credited with the creation of some of the finest song and poetry ever produced in Dahomey

Affonso I was a visionary, a man who saw his country not as a group of separate cultures, but as a unified nation fully equipped with advance knowledge and technology. He was also known as the first ruler to resist the most despicable act ever known to man, the European slave trade.
In 730 B.C.E. Kashta's son and successor Piye (Piankhi) conquered Upper and Lower Kmt but chose to govern from Kush (Upper Nubia between the third and sixth cataracts). Finally, about 715 B.C.E., Shabaka, Piye's brother and successor, completed the total reunification of Kmt, ruled from Waset and became the head of a stupendous Kushite empire that extended from the Mediterranean Sea southwards to the confluence of the Blue and White Niles deep in Inner Africa. It was during this same period that the ancient creation story currently known as the Memphite Theology was recopied for eternity on a massive granite slab

He was the founder and leader of the territory of Opobo an area near the Eastern Nigeria River. This area was very favorable to trading. This trading route soon attracted the greedy Europeans who seek to capture this trading route. Ja Ja put up fierce resistance to this outside intervention. This resistance lasted for many years until at an older age of 70 he was finally captured by the British and sent into exile to the West Indies. The greatest Ibo leader of the nineteenth century never saw his kingdom again.

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Peace and love to my own brother Anasi!

Many thanks for your long memory.


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reminds me of Tu-tankh-amon!

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IronLion wrote;reminds me of Tu-tankh-amon!

You know I have always wondered about that myself
if it is a compound name then we may have something there..TENK+AMEN..IN <part??..
Any linguist out there wants to tackle that? [Smile]

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Samory Toure "Black Napoleon of the Sudan" (1830-1900)
Samory Toure, who was a conqueror from West Africa, fought the French from taking possession of his homeland for over 18 years. He fought with such mastery, that the French military leaders referred to him as "The Black Napoleon." He frustrated the Europeans to the degree that they suffered large losses of manpower and money. Samory's expert military strategy and tactics caused even greater insecurity for the French.
Samory was born of humble means, the son of a poor Black merchant and a Senegalese female slave.

Samory had become an idol of the other soldiers. Being provoked by jealousy, the king demanded Samory be removed from the army and sent back to his homeland, Bissandugu, where he became king of the tribe.

Samory's homeland was attacked by the neighboring King Sori Bourama. His mother was captured during this raid. Samory was unable to pay his mother's ransom, so he freed her by taking her place.

Samory, always desiring to be a free man, became a favorite of the king because of his splendid physique, his ability to throw a spear, and his knowledge of the Arabic language. Soon he became a bodyguard for the king, and later advanced to counselor of the tribe.

Samory defied all of his opponents and even conquered his former capturer, King Sori Bourama. Samory expanded his empire to an area of over 100,000 sq. miles or more, making him the most powerful native ruler in West Africa.

On September 29, 1898, while Samory was on his knees, outside of his tent praying. A French sergeant, and a French scout, crept upon him from behind, captured and exiled him to an island for life.

During the nineteenth Dynasty a queen by the name of Nefertari was in power with Ramesses the Great. She was one of many wives, but continued to remain one of his favorites. Her birth parents remain a mystery, but it’s determined she is of royal heritage. It’s however known that she had a brother by the name of Amenmose who was the mayor of Thebes during her rule as queen. She had two sons, Amonhirwonmef, Prehirwonmef and two daughters named Merytamon, and Mertatum.

Looking at all the monuments constructed it’s pretty evident she was of high importance. She must’ve played an important role in her time. Most depictions of the queen stand with Ramesses II, which might mean she might’ve had a major political influence on Egypt. Ramesses II also dedicated a temple to her called Abu Simbel. This temple is located south of Aswan near the second Cataract of the Nile. This temple was designed with four large statues of Ramesses II with several small figures at his side. The temple was dedicated to the goddess Hathor and Queen Nefertari.

Nefertari was not the only Queen present during the rule of Ramesses II. In fact, Ramesses had a harem filled with many queens. His children were estimated at one hundred or more. Ramesses refers to her as the most beautiful one.

Her disappearance remains a mystery. Experts aren’t sure if she died, or just remained part of the great harem. Her tomb has been found and it remains a precious treasure to Egypt. Her tomb is said to be one of the more extraordinary tombs found to date. It’s located in The Valley of the Queens.


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Hatshepsut (reigned 1503-1482 B.C.) was an Egyptian queen of the Eighteenth Dynasty. Usurping the throne after her husband's death, she held effective power for over 20 years.

The daughter of Thutmose I by his queen Ahmose, Hatshepsut was married to her half brother Thutmose II, a son of Thutmose I by a lesser queen named Mutnofre. During Thutmose II's lifetime Hatshepsut was merely a principal queen bearing the titles King's Daughter, King's Sister, God's Wife, and King's Great Wife.

On the death of Thutmose II the youthful Thutmose III, a son of Thutmose II by a concubine named Ese (Isis), came to the throne but under the tutelage of Hatshepsut, who for a number of years thereafter succeeded in keeping him in the background. At the beginning she had only queenly status but soon assumed the double crown of Egypt and, after some initial hesitation, had herself depicted in male dress.

Although both she, and later Thutmose III, counted their reigns from the beginning of their partnership, Hatshepsut was the dominant ruler until Year Twenty. Thutmose III was also shown as a king but only as a junior coregent. In an inscription of Year Twenty in Sinai, however, Thutmose III is shown on an equal footing with his aunt.

For obvious reasons warlike activities were barred even to so virile a woman as Hatshepsut, and with the exception of a minor expedition into Nubia, her reign was devoid of military undertakings. But an inscription on the facade of a small rock temple in Middle Egypt, known to the Greeks as Speos Artemidos, records her pride in having restored the sanctuaries in that part of Egypt, which she claimed had been neglected since the time of the alien Hyksos rulers.

Among the many officials on whose support Hatshepsut must have depended at least initially was one Senmut, whom she entrusted with the guardianship of the heir to the throne, the princess Ranefru, her daughter by her marriage to Thutmose II. According to Senmut himself, he was responsible for the many buildings erected by the Queen at Thebes. Among these was her splendid terraced temple at Deir el-Bahri, which was inspired by the earlier structure there of the Eleventh Dynasty king Mentuhotpe I.

Apart from the customary ritual ceremonies, the colored reliefs on the walls of this temple depicted the two main events of Hatshepsut's reign, the transport of two great red granite obelisks from Elephantine to Karnak and the famous expedition of Year Nine to the land of Punt, an unidentified locality which probably lay somewhere on the African Red Sea littoral.

Once having proclaimed herself king, Hatshepsut had a tomb excavated for herself in the Valley of the Kings. How she died is unknown, but after her death her memory was execrated by Thutmose III, who caused her name to be erased from the monuments wherever it could be found

Tuthmosis III
by Jimmy Dunn

For different reasons, to different people, Egypt's 18th Dynasty is probably one of Egypt's most interesting periods. For the general public, This was the Dynasty of Tutankhamun, probably the best known, though certainly not the most powerful pharaoh of all time. To others, Akhenaten, the heretic king, will provide an everlasting curiosity. Closer to the beginning of this Dynasty, Hatshepsut ruled as perhaps the most powerful of all Egyptian queens, even though she often disguised and promoted herself though inscriptions as a man, and even though her predecessor, Tuthmosis II named his young son to succeed him upon his death. But upon Tuthmosis' death, his son, Tuthmosis III was still a young child, so there was little choice but for his stepmother and aunt Hatshepsut to initially act as his regent. His birth name was probably Djehutymes III in Egyptian, but he is frequently referred to by his Greek name of Tuthmosis (Born of the god Thoth). He is also known as Thutmose III, Thutmosis, and his Throne name was Men-kheper-re (Lasting is the Manifestation of Re).
By the second year of the young king's rule, Hatshepsut had usurped her stepson's position and so inscriptions and other art began to show her with all the regalia of kingship, even down to the official royal false beard. Yet, at the same time, she did little to really diminish Tuthmosis' rule, dating her own rule by his regnal years, and representing him frequently upon her monuments.

It is likely that Tuthmosis III, was lucky to have survived her rule, though there is some debate on this issue. He obviously stayed well in the background, and perhaps even demonstrated some amount of cunning in order to simply keep his life. Because of the prowess he would later demonstrate on the battlefield, we assume he probably spent much of Hatshepsut's rule in a military position. To an extent, they did rule together, he in a foreign military position, and her taking care of the homeland. When Hatshepsut finally died, outliving her powerful ministers, Tuthmosis III was at last able to truly inherit the thrown of Egypt, and in doing so, proved to be a very able ruler.

Interestingly, it was not until the last years of his reign that he demonstrated what must have been some anger with his stepmother by destroying as much of her memory as possible. Her images were expunged from monuments throughout Egypt. This is obvious to most visitors of Egypt because one of the most effected monuments was her temple at Deir el-Bahari, today a primary tourist site. There, Tuthmosis III destroyed her reliefs and smashed numerous statues into a quarry just in front of the temple. He even went so far as to attack the tombs of her courtiers. Yet if this was over the frustration of his youth when she ruled, why did he wait until such a late date to begin the destruction?

Military Exploits

In any event, Tuthmosis III became a great pharaoh in his own right, and has been referred to as the Napoleon of ancient Egypt (by the Egyptologists, James Henry Breasted). But perhaps is reputation is due to the fact that his battles were recorded in great detail by the archivist, royal scribe and army commander, Thanuny. The battles were recorded on the inside walls surrounding the granite sanctuary at Karnak, and inscriptions on Thanuny's tomb on the west bank state that, "I recorded the victories he won in every land, putting them into writing according to the facts". Referred to as the Annals, the inscriptions were done during Tuthmosis' 42nd year as pharaoh, and describe both the battles and the booty that was taken. These events were recorded at Karnak because Tuthmosis's army marched under the banner of the god, Amun, and Amun's temples and estates would largely be the beneficiary of the spoils of Tuthmosis' wars.

Having close ties with his military, Tuthmosis undoubtedly received sage advice from his commanders. It was probably decided that the Levant offered the greatest potential for glory and wealth if the trade routes dominated by Syrian, Cypriot, Palestinian and Aegean rulers could be taken.

Tuthmosis III fought with considerable nerve and cunning. On one campaign, he marched to Gaza in ten days and from Yehem, planned the battle to take take Megiddo which was held by a rebellious prince named Kadesh. There were three possible approaches to Megiddo, two of which were fairly open, straightforward routes while the third was through a narrow pass that soldiers would only be able to march through in single file.

Though he was advised against this dangerous pass by his commanders, Tuthmosis not only took this dangerous route, but actually led the troops through. Whether by luck, or gifted intuition this gamble paid off, for when he emerged from the tight canyon, he saw that his enemies had arranged their armies to defend the easier routes. In fact, he emerged between the north and south wings of the enemy's armies, and the next day decisively beat them in battle. It apparently took a long siege (seven months) to take the city of Megiddo, but the rewards were great. The spoils were considerable, and included 894 chariots, including two covered with gold, 200 suites of armor including two of bronze, as well as over 2,000 horses and 25,000 other animals.

Tuthmosis III had marched from Thebes up the Syrian coast fighting decisive battles, capturing three cities, and then returned back to Thebes. Over the next 18 years, his armies would march against Syria every summer and by the end of that period, he established Egyptian dominance over Palestine. At Karnak he records the capture of 350 cities, and in the 42nd year of his rule, Kadesh itself was finally taken.

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zarahan- aka Enrique Cardova
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Good job Brada..

Applying a consistent 'race' model that interprets war between Egyptians and Nubians as 'racial' the Egyptians also pursued 'racial' wars against whites from the Middle East.



Thou hast struck off the heads of the Asiatics, and their children cannot escape from thee. Every land illuminated by thy diadem is encircled by thy might; and in all the zone of the heavens there is not a rebel to rise up against thee. The enemy bring in their tribute on their backs, prostrating themselves before thee, their limbs trembling and their hearts burned up within them."

Campaign against "white" Mittani in parts of Lebanon:

"He is a king valiant ... Naharin which its lord had deserted out of fear ... I hacked up its towns and villages and I set fire to them ... I carried off their inhabitants ... also their herds of cattle ... I felled all their plantations and their fruit trees ...I had many vessels ... built on the mountains of God's Land in the neighborhood of the Lady of Byblos ... then on that mountain of Naharin, my Majesty erected my stela, carved out of the mountain on the western side of the Euphrates.."

Conquest against and tribute from "white" Palestine:

"Tribute of the princes of Retenu, who came to do obeisance ... to the souls of his majesty... Now every harbor at which his majesty arrived was supplied with loaves and with assorted loaves, with oil, incense, wine, f[ruit] ---- abundant were they beyond everything ...

Tribute from 'white' Lebanon:

The chieftains, lord of Lebanon, construct the royal ships in order that people may sail south in them to bring all the marvels of the "Garden" to the palace. LPH. ... The chieftains of Retjenu (Retenu) who drag the flagpoles by means of oxen to the shore, it is they who come with their dues to the place where his majesty is, to the Residence in ...... bearing all the fine products brought as marvels of the south and being taxed for tribute annually as (with) all bondsmen of his Majesty."

Operations against more 'white' 'Troglodytes':

"Then my Majesty made them take their oaths of allegiance as follows: never again shall we do anything evil against Menkheperre (another name for Thutmose III), may he live forever ...
Then my Majesty had them set free on the road to their cities*). They went off on donkeys for I had seized their chariotry. I captured their inhabitants for Egypt and their property likewise." [W. Helck transl. by B. Cummings (1982), `Urkunden der 18. Dynastie', `Egyptian Historical Records of the Later 18th Dynasty']

"His majesty proceeded northward, to overthrow the Asiatics (Mntyw-Stt). His majesty arrived at a district, Sekmem (Skmm) was its name. His majesty led the good way in proceeding to the palace of `Life, Prosperity, and Health (L.P.H.,' when Sekmen had fallen, together with Retenu (Rtnw) the wretched, while I was acting as rearguard." [Breasted, `Records', Vol. I, Sec. 680]
Time of Seti the Great - Presentation of Syrian Prisoners and Precious Vessels to Amon

"Smiting the Troglodytes, beating down the Asiatics (Mn·t·yw), making his boundary as far as the `Horns of the Earth', as far as the marshes of Naharin (N-h-r-n)." [Ibid., Vol. III, Sec. 118;]

"Slaying of the Asiatic Troglodytes (Ynw-Mn·t·yw [Menate, Manasseh]), all inaccessible countries, all lands, the Fenkhu of the marshes of Asia, the Great Bend of the sea (w'd-wr)."

Booty seized from "white" Caananites:

".... 340 living prisoners; 83 hands; 2,401 mares; 191 foals; 6 stallions; ... young ...; a chariot, wrought with gold, (its) pole of gold, belonging to the chief of `M-k-ty' (as the land around Jerusalem was called); .... 892 chariots of his wretched army; total, 924 (chariots); a beautiful suit of bronze armor, belonging to the chief of Jerusalem; .... 200 suits of armor, belonging to his wretched army; 502 bows; 7 poles of (mry) wood, wrought with silver, belonging to the tent of that foe. Behold, the army of his majesty took ...., 297 ...., 1,929 large cattle, 2,000 small cattle, 20500 white small cattle." [JBRE, `Records', Vol. II, Sec. 435; See also the following sections.]

Tribute from "white" Assur/Assyria
"The tribute of the chief of Assur (Ys-sw-r): genuine lapis lazuli, a large block, making 20 deben, 9 kidet; genuine lapis lazuli, 2 blocks; total, 3; and pieces, [making] 30 deben; total, 50 deben and 9 kidet; fine lapis lazuli from Babylon (Bb-r); vessels of Assur of hrrt- stone in colors, ---- very many." "Tribute of the chief of Assur: horses ---. A ---- of skin of the M-h-w as the [protection] of a chariot, of the finest of --- wood; 190(+x) wagons --- --- wood, nhb wood, 343 pieces, carob wood, 50 pieces; nby and k'nk wood, 206 pieces; olive oil, ------.." [BREASTED, Vol. II, Sec. 446, 449]

"Whites" put to slave labor in Egypt.

from Project Guttenberg full text of:
II, 760-1, 773. 2 II, 761.

"the Asiatics of all countries came with bowed head, doing obeisance to the fame of his majesty."

book text:

"Thutmose's war-galleys moored in the harbour of the town; but at this time not merely the iceaUh of Asia was unloaded from the ships; the Asiatics themselves, bound one to another in long lines, were led down the gang planks to begin a life of slave- labour for the Pharaoh (Fig. 119). They wore long matted beards, an abomination to the Egyptians ; their hair hung in heavy black masses upon their shoulders, and they were clad in gaily coloured woolen stuffs, such as the Egyptian, spotless in his white linen robe, would never put on his body.

Their arms were pinioned behind them at the elbows or crossed over their heads and lashed together ; or, again, their hands were thrust through odd pointed ovals of wood, which served as hand-cuffs. The women carried their children slung in a fold of the mantle over their shoulders. With their strange speech and uncouth postures the poor wretches were the subject of jibe and merriment on the part of the multitude ; while the artists of the time could never forbear caricaturing them. Many of them found their way into the houses of the Pharaoh's favourites, and his generals were liberally rewarded with gifts of such slaves; but the larger number were immediately employed on the temple estates, the Pharaoh's domains, or in the construction of his great monuments and buildings."

Conservative Egyptologist Frank Yurco, shows that the 12th Dynasty was of the negroid type, of Upper Egyptian and Nubian origin. The 12th Dynasty is one of Egypt's greatest, and was in place approximately 1000 years before the 25th dynasty. Yurco also shows that the Nubians were ethnically the closest people to the Egyptians.


"the XIIth Dynasty (1991-1786 B.C.E.) originated from the Aswan region. As expected, strong Nubian features and dark coloring are seen in their sculpture and relief work. This dynasty ranks as among the greatest, whose fame far outlived its actual tenure on the throne. Especially interesting, it was a member of this dynasty- that decreed that no Nehsy (riverine Nubian of the principality of Kush), except such as came for trade or diplomatic reasons, should pass by the Egyptian fortress at the southern end of the Second Nile Cataract. Why would this royal family of Nubian ancestry ban other Nubians from coming into Egyptian territory? Because the Egyptian rulers of Nubian ancestry had become Egyptians culturally; as pharaohs, they exhibited typical Egyptian attitudes and adopted typical Egyptian policies."

- (F. J. Yurco, 'Were the ancient Egyptians black or white?', Biblical Archaeology Review (Vol 15, no. 5, 1989)

"Among the foreigners, the Nubians were closest ethnically to the Egyptians. In the late predynastic period (c. 3700-3150 B.C.E.), the Nubians shared the same culture as the Egyptians and even evolved the same pharaonic political structure."

- (F. J. Yurco, 'Were the ancient Egyptians black or white?', Biblical Archaeology Review (Vol 15, no. 5, 1989)

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Icon 1 posted 24 September, 2009 01:23 PM Profile for Brada-Anansi Author's Homepage Send New Private Message Edit/Delete Post Reply With Quote
Queen Tiye:
Hereditary Princess (iryt-p`t)
Great of Praises (wrt-hzwt)
Sweet of Love (bnrt-mrwt)
Lady of The Two Lands (nbt-t3wy)
King’s Wife (hmt-nisw)
Great King’s Wife (hmt-niswt-wrt),
King’s Wife, his beloved (hmt-nisw meryt.f),
Mistress of Upper and Lower Egypt (hnwt-Shm’w-mhw)
Mistress of the Two Lands (hnwt-t3wy)

Queen Tiye from the tomb of Userhat (Brussels)
Photo by Yuti

Daughter of Yuya and Tuya and wife of Amenhotep III.
Mother of Tuthmosis, Amenhotep (later to be called Akhenaten), Sitamen, Henuttaneb, Isis, Nebetah, and Baketaten

Yuya and Tuya were the non royal parents of Queen Tiye.
Yuya was commander of the Chariotry, God's Father and High Priest of Min.
Tuya was Chief of the Harem of Amun and Min.

Tiye was the daughter of Yuya, the High Priest of Min from Akhmin and his wife , the chief of the Harem Tuya. Tiye had at least one brother Anen who later rose to the position of Second Priest of Amun in Karnak. Tiye must have been quite young herself when she was married of to the young Pharaoh Amenhotep III. Tiye is mentioned on several marriage scarabs and other documents from early in the reign. Later during the reign of Amenhotep III she became a very iinfluential lady at court. It is interesting for instance to note that several large statues exist that show Tiye depicted at the same size as her husband. The dyad that is now in the Cairo Museum is a good example.

A temple was dedicated to Queen Tiye in Sedeinga, Nubia during the latter part of Amenhotep's reign. Tiye represents the "eye of Re" and her temple is the female counterpart to a larger temple dedicated to Amenhotep III nearby. Some see these dual temples as a fore runner of the double temple complex of Ramesses II and his wife Nefertari at Abu Simbel.

Tiye gave birts to several children during her marriage to Amenhotep III. She is depicted with several daughters in for instance the temple at Soleb. Two royal princesses, Sitamen and Isis, are among the royal princesses thought to be her daughters. These two royal women would later be elevated to the rank of great royal wife by their father.

It is usually thought that Tiye was also the mother of the heir to the throne Tuthmosis. We do know that Tiye was the mother of Amenhotep III's successor Akhenaten.

There are some Amarna letters that indicate that Tiye held some influence at court. Tushratta, King of Mitanni, wrote a letter to Queeen Tiye after Akhenaten came to the throne, and in a later letter to Akhenaten, a referrence to his mother is made in the opening paragraph.

Scenes in the tomb of Huya, Queen Tiye's Steward, in Amarna shows that the Queen mother made a visit to Aketaten. She is shown with a young princess named Baketaten. Queen Tiye is shown at banquets with the royal family. She is also depicted during a visit to her sunshade. She is led to this temple by her son Akhenaten and the princess Beketaten is shown accompanying her on this trip as well.

It is not know when exactly Queen Tiye died, but it is generally assumed that her death took place somewhere around year 14 of the reign of Akhenaten. She may have been buried at Amarna at first, but part of a canopy belonging to Queen Tiye was found in KV55. This may mean that she was re-interred somewhere in the Valley of the Kings. It is possible that she may have been laid to rest in the set of rooms prepared for her earlier in the tomb of her husband Amenhotep III.

A lock of hair thought to be hers shows a possible match to the hair of the mummy called "the elder lady" from KV35. It is therefor possible that after the new kingdom her body was re-buried (again).

N OF SHEBA (960 B.C.)

Written by Legrand H. Clegg II


"I am black but comely,

O ye daughters of Jerusalem,

As the tents of Kedar,

As the curtains of Solomon,

Look not upon me because I am black

Because the sun hath scorched me."

(Song of Solomon)

MAKEDA - QUEEN OF SHEBA (The symbol of Beauty)

Although most of Black history is suppressed, distorted or ignored by an ungrateful modern world, some African traditions are so persistent that all of the power and deception of the Western academic establishment have failed to stamp them out. One such story is that of Makeda, the Queen of Sheba, and King Solomon of Israel.

Black women of antiquity were legendary for their beauty, power and lover affairs. Especially great were the Queens of Ethiopia; Queen of Sheba (960 B.C.), Candace of Meroe and her defeat of Alexander the Great (332 B.C.), Amanirenas, Amanishakhete, Nawidemak, Amanitore (Acts 8:26-40), Shanakdakh, and Malegereabar.

Ethiopia was also known as Nubia, Kush, Aksum, Abyssinia and Sheba. One thousand years before Christ, Ethiopia was ruled by a line of virgin queens. The one whose story has survived into our time was known as Makeda, "the Queen of Sheba." Her remarkable tradition was recorded in the Kebra Nagast, or the Book of the Glory of the Kings [of Ethiopia], has been held in the highest esteem and honour throughout the length and breadth of Abyssinia for a thousand years at least, and even to-day it is believed by every educated man in that country to contain the true history of the origin of the Solomonic line of kings in Ethiopia, and is regarded as the final authority on the history of the conversion of the Ethiopians from the worship of the sun, moon, and stars to that of the Lord God of Israel.

The Bible tells us that, during his reign, King Solomon of Israel decided to build a magnificent temple. To announce this endeavor, the king sent forth messengers to various foreign countries to invite merchants from abroad to come to Jerusalem with their caravans so that they might engage in trade there.

At this time, Ethiopia was second only to Egypt in power and fame. Hence, King Solomon was enthralled by Ethiopia's beautiful people, rich history, deep spiritual tradition and wealth. He was especially interested in engaging in commerce with one of Queen Makeda's subjects, an important merchant by the name of Tamrin.(1)

Solomon sent for Tamrin who "packed up stores of valuables including ebony, sapphires and red gold, which he took to Jerusalem to sell to the king."(2) It turns out that Tamrin's visit was momentous. Although accustomed to the grandeur and luxury of Egypt and Ethiopia, Tamrin was still impressed by King Solomon and his young nation. During a prolonged stay in Israel, Tamrin observed the magnificent buildings and was intrigued by the Jewish people and their culture. But above all else, he was deeply moved by Solomon's wisdom and compassion for his subjects.

Upon returning to his country, Tamrin poured forth elaborate details about his trip to Queen Makeda. She was so impressed by the exciting story that the great queen decided to visit King Solomon herself.(3)

To understand the significance of state visits in antiquity in contrast to those of today (for example, President Clinton's trips to confer with foreign heads of state), we must completely remove ourselves from the present place and time. In ancient times, royal visits were very significant ceremonial affairs. The visiting regent was expected to favor the host with elaborate gifts and the state visit might well last for weeks or even months.

Even by ancient standards, however, Queen Makeda's visit to King Solomon was extraordinary. In 1 Kings 10:1-2, the Bible tells us:

"1. And when the Queen of Sheba heard of the fame of Solomon concerning the name of the Lord, she came to prove him with hard questions.

"2. And she came to Jerusalem with a very great train, with camels that bear spices and very much gold, and precious stones. And when she was come to Solomon she communed with him of all that was in her heart."

1 Kings 10:10 adds: "She gave the king 120 talents of gold, and of spices very great store and precious stones; there came no more such abundance of spices as these which the Queen of Sheba gave to King Solomon."

We should pause to consider the staggering sight of this beautiful Black woman and her vast array of resplendent attendants travelling over the Sahara desert into Israel with more than 797 camels plus donkeys and mules too numerous to count. The value of the gold alone, which she gave to King Solomon, would be $3,690,000 today and was of much greater worth in antiquity.

King Solomon, and undoubtedly the Jewish people, were flabbergasted by this great woman and her people. He took great pains to accommodate her every need. A special apartment was built for her lodging while she remained in his country. She was also provided with the best of food and eleven changes of garments daily.

As so many African leaders before her, this young maiden, though impressed with the beauty of Solomon's temple and his thriving domain, had come to Israel seeking wisdom and the truth about the God of the Jewish people. Responding to her quest for knowledge, Solomon had a throne set up for the queen beside his. "It was covered with silken carpets, adorned with fringes of gold and silver, and studded with diamonds and pearls. From this she listened while he delivered judgments."(4)

Queen Makeda also accompanied Solomon throughout his kingdom. She observed the wise, compassionate and spiritual ruler as he interacted with his subjects in everyday affairs. Speaking of the value of her visit with the King and her administration for him, Queen Makeda stated:

"My Lord, how happy I am. Would that I could

remain here always, if but as the humblest of

your workers, so that I could always hear your

words and obey you.

"How happy I am when I interrogate you! How

happy when you answer me. My whole being is

moved with pleasure; my soul is filled; my

feet no longer stumble; I thrill with delight.

"Your wisdom and goodness," she continued, "are

beyond all measure. They are excellence itself.

Under your influence I am placing new values on

life. I see light in the darkness; the firefly

in the garden reveals itself in newer beauty. I

discover added lustre in the pearl; a greater

radiance in the morning star, and a softer

harmony in the moonlight. Blessed be the God that

brought me here; blessed be He who permitted your

majestic mind to be revealed to me; blessed be the

One who brought me into your house to hear your voice."(5)

Solomon had a harem of over 700 wives and concubines, yet, he was enamored by the young Black virgin from Ethiopia. Although he held elaborate banquets in her honor and wined, dined and otherwise entertained her during the length of her visit, they both knew that, according to Ethiopian tradition, the Queen must remain chaste. Nevertheless, the Jewish monarch wished to plant his seed in Makeda, so that he might have a son from her regal African lineage.

To this end the shrewd king conspired to conquer the affection of this young queen with whom he had fallen in love. When, after six months in Israel, Queen Makeda announced to King Solomon that she was ready to return to Ethiopia, he invited her to a magnificent farewell dinner at his palace.

The meal lasted for several hours and featured hot, spicy foods that were certain to make all who ate thirsty and sleepy (as King Solomon had planned.) Since the meal ended very late, the king invited Queen Makeda to stay overnight in the palace in his quarters. She agreed as long as they would sleep in separate beds and the king would not seek to take advantage of her. He vowed to honor her chastity, but also requested that she not take anything in the palace. Outraged by such a suggestion, the Queen protested that she was not a thief and then promised as requested.

Not long after the encounter, the Queen, dying of thirst, searched the palace for water. Once she found a large water jar and proceeded to drink, the King startled her by stating:

"You have broken your oath that you would not

take anything by force that is in my palace.

The Queen protested, of course, that surely

the promise did not cover something so

insignificant and plentiful as water, but

Solomon argued that there was nothing in the

world more valuable than water, for without

it nothing could live. Makeda reluctantly

admitted the truth of this and apologized for

her mistake, begging for water for her parched

throat. Solomon, now released from his promise,

assuaged her thirst and his own, immediately

taking the Queen as his lover."(6)

The following day as the Queen and her entourage prepared to leave Israel, the King placed a ring on her hand and stated, "If you have a son, give this to him and send him to me." After returning to the land of Sheba, Queen Makeda did indeed have a son, whom she named Son-of-the-wise-man, and reared as a prince and her heir apparent to the throne.

Upon reaching adulthood, the young man wished to visit his father, so the Queen prepared another entourage, this time headed by Tamrin. She sent a message to Solomon to anoint their son as king of Ethiopia and to mandate that thenceforth only the males descended from their son should rule Sheba.

Solomon and the Jewish people rejoiced when his son arrived in Israel. The king anointed him as the Queen had requested and renamed him Menelik, meaning "how handsome he is."

Though Solomon had many wives, only one had produced a son, Rehoboam, a boy of seven. So the king begged Menelik to remain, but the young prince would not. Solomon therefore called his leaders and nobles and announced that, since he was sending his first born son back to Ethiopia, he wanted all of them to send their firstborn sons "to be his counselors and officers." And they agreed to do so.

Menelik asked his father for a relic of the Ark of the Covenant to take back with him to the land of Sheba. It is said that while Solomon intended to provide his son with a relic, the sons of the counselors, angry at having to leave their homes and go to Sheba with Menelik, actually stole the real Ark and took it to Ethiopia.

Menelik returned to Sheba and, according to tradition, ruled wisely and well. And his famous line has continued down to the 20th century when, even now, the ruler of Ethiopia is the "conquering lion of Judah" descended directly from King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba.




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